By Paul Rogers

In 2016, CIA officers in Havana, Cuba, began having unexplained well being points. They reported a persistent piercing sound adopted by signs together with complications, nausea, vertigo, bother concentrating, and reminiscence loss. Was it a brand new situation? Or was it the newest incidence of the centuries-old phenomenon of mass psychogenic sickness, previously referred to as mass hysteria?

Since 2016, a whole bunch of incidents of what’s now dubbed “Havana syndrome” have been recorded by U.S. intelligence and Overseas Service personnel in a rising checklist of world areas, together with Russia and China. As most had been working in hotbeds of espionage, surrounded by conventional U.S adversaries, many within the American authorities and media quickly started to suspect foul play.

Others are skeptical, theorizing that mass psychogenic sickness (MPI) is basically behind Havana syndrome. “Mass hysteria is an outbreak of a bodily sickness in a bunch that seems to have an natural or physiological trigger, however really stems from psychological causes, usually from anxiousness,” says Gary Small, MD, professor of psychiatry at UCLA.

The query is way from settled. However MPI is just not a brand new phenomenon; examples pop up all through historical past. And whereas the signs, sufferers, and areas differ, some developments maintain regular: these sicknesses are sometimes born of stress, and so they unfold like wildfire amongst shut social networks. No two “epidemics” are precisely alike, however historical past could shed some mild on the current murky state of affairs: If Havana syndrome is one other MPI, how does it evaluate to MPIs up to now? Can historic cases of mass psychogenic sickness contribute to a greater understanding of this elusive medical enigma?

MPI has been acknowledged because the Center Ages. Dancing mania was first reported in Seventh-century Europe and reappeared throughout that continent till the seventeenth century, comprising big crowds dancing erratically for generally days at a time. A notable 1518 outbreak started with the feverish cavorting of a lone lady within the streets of Strasbourg in modern-day France. Theories as to why teams of as much as 400 individuals adopted swimsuit embody stress-induced psychosis ensuing from widespread illness and famine within the area.

The notorious Salem, MA, witch trials of 1692-1693 had been a response to quite a few ladies having outlandish, inexplicable suits. The reason for these convulsions and their interpretation as proof of witchcraft are nonetheless debated. However collective rigidity ensuing from latest epidemics and posttraumatic stress dysfunction from the continuing King William’s Conflict, from which most of the affected ladies had been refugees, have been cited as components.

“You are likely to see patterns,” says Small. “Individuals affected usually are in remoted conditions. There’s some type of stress that the group is experiencing with none technique of resolving it.”

The 1962 Tanganyika laughter epidemic started at a mission-run ladies’ boarding college in Kashasha, Tanzania. Beginning with three college students, suits of laughter lasting as much as a number of days unfold all through the college, forcing its closure. The epidemic then unfold to a village to which a number of college students had returned.

Small co-authored a examine of a 1979 incident at a Boston elementary college when, whereas performing in an end-of-year play, an influential boy turned dizzy and fell, bleeding profusely. This triggered psychogenic responses together with dizziness, hyperventilation, and stomach ache in one-third of the coed physique.

“There are a selection of psychological stressors amongst these children, not to mention simply the efficiency anxiousness they’re experiencing,” says Small, whose findings steered a relationship between childhood loss, equivalent to parental divorce or household demise, and susceptibility to MPI.

In 1983, an outbreak of mass fainting and nausea affected 943 Palestinian ladies and some feminine Israeli troopers within the occupied West Financial institution. Israel and Palestine traded allegations of chemical warfare, however finally a neighborhood well being official concluded that whereas the primary 20% of circumstances had been in all probability attributable to an unidentified gasoline, the rest had been primarily psychosomatic, in keeping with Time journal.

A UCLA investigation of a 1989 incident by which 247 pupil performers, most of them feminine, turned violently in poor health at Santa Monica Civic Auditorium equally famous that kids who noticed a good friend turn into sick had been the more than likely to develop signs, which had been thus transmitted by social networks.

A whole lot of ladies at a boarding college close to Mexico Metropolis skilled unexplained leg ache, nausea, and fever throughout 2006-2007. It was a closed group, with college students denied entry to tv or radio. The ensuing virtually familial bonds between them could have contributed to what psychiatrist Nashyiela Loa Zavala, who investigated the case, has termed the “audiovisual contagion” of MPI.

Commonalities exist between at the very least some Havana syndrome circumstances and historic MPI outbreaks. MPI normally begins amongst a small, cohesive group of individuals of upper standing, in a tense state of affairs, after which spreads.

“The involvement of 4 [CIA agents] from the identical station is a defining characteristic of mass psychogenic sickness, which is understood to comply with social networks,” says New Zealand-based medical sociologist Robert Bartholomew, PhD.

Most Havana syndrome circumstances are personnel remoted removed from dwelling in abroad embassies, not in contrast to the boarding college students concerned in lots of MPI outbreaks. They’re bonded by a tense work atmosphere, below fixed surveillance, and certain cognizant of Russia’s alleged prior use of microwave transmissions to disrupt U.S. intelligence. But for causes of nationwide safety, they’re sometimes unable to share associated anxieties with household or “civilian” buddies.

Some signs beforehand attributed to MPI, together with headache, dizziness, and nausea, have been related to Havana syndrome. Bartholomew steered that “reframing” of those widespread complaints by these affected, to replicate what docs and authorities authorities are telling them, might contribute to the phenomenon. In different phrases, individuals may be experiencing generic signs widespread in MPI and be inclined to sinister explanations — with none proof for them.

Havana syndrome outbreaks are separated by generally 1000’s of miles, which ostensibly eliminates audiovisual contagion. However the web has redefined the idea of “group” to now transcend geographical proximity. Social media and on-line information undoubtedly made U.S. diplomats and intelligence officers effectively conscious of graphic descriptions of Havana syndrome signs from friends world wide, a few of whom could be personally recognized to them from prior postings.

Nevertheless, Havana syndrome doesn’t meet all widespread MPI standards. Small famous “a preponderance of signs [of MPI] in ladies or ladies in contrast with boys or males.” Certainly, MPI disproportionately impacts younger ladies greater than some other demographic. But nearly all of Havana syndrome circumstances have been middle-aged males.

There is no such thing as a consensus on the reason for Havana syndrome. Theories vary from the mating name of crickets to a sonic weapon. Some consultants keep that early circumstances of Havana syndrome current unambiguous proof of neurological harm in step with publicity to microwave radiation. But they continue to be open to contributing psychosocial components in at the very least some cases.

“We discovered [microwave radiation] to be most believable in explaining a subset of the circumstances, not all circumstances,” says David Relman, MD, a Stanford College microbiologist who headed the Nationwide Academy of Sciences examine of Havana syndrome. Relman mentioned that this subset comprised employees of the American embassy in Cuba and on the U.S. consulate in Guangzhou, China, which was the second location to report signs.

James Giordano, PhD, professor of neurology at Georgetown College and advisor to the Pentagon, mentioned that the unique circumstances on the Havana embassy “had goal options — clinically relatable, objectifiable, and legitimate and evidentiary indicators — that had been indicative of some type of neurological trauma or insult.” However he famous that solely a fraction of the worldwide incidents thus far have been verified as assembly the complete, goal medical standards for the kind of anomalous well being incident often known as Havana syndrome.

After 5 years, a whole bunch of circumstances on a number of continents, and steady, inconclusive investigation, there could by no means be a definitive reply as to if Havana syndrome is bodily or psychogenic. However historical past could deliver extra readability than Chilly-Conflict-era spycraft. Havana syndrome has some main variations from MPI epidemics of the previous, however in some ways it’s extra comparable than not — and paranoia within the American intelligence group would hardly be unprecedented.

Paul Rogers is a British-born journalist primarily based in Los Angeles. A graduate of the Faculty of African and Asian Research on the College of Sussex, his work has appeared within the Los Angeles Instances, Nationwide Geographic Traveler, LA Weekly, and lots of others.

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